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Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Search for:. Recent Posts. In the end, an objection too : yes strobus grows very fast when young, but as I see in my country the Luchon's one for example this growth turns very slower as this tree get old.

So you mean that this is a tulip tree above a white pine tree? With all due respect, but I will never believe it because the figure near this tree is placed 25 times, and near the pine 28 times, I also came out with Tasmanian blue elastic band in San Francisco, which is He means he has measured those trees his white pine, this tulip tree and a blue gum Eucalyptus globulus in San Francisco from photos comparing the tree lengths with persons next to the trees.

I don't any find my latin BeeEnvironment , am , hat gesagt:. A very amazing tree! The only tulip near me that reaches such size is in Longwood gardens at A beautiful forest as well!

Europäische Eibe auf den Hackhurst Down, Gomshall, England, Vereinigten Königreich en. Seeing how it is located on the edge of the fenced area, and on a slope, I think it likely has a high chance of being a wild yew.

It also seems that the branches were cut back at some point in the past. Aidan , am , hat gesagt:. Yes, I would totally agree with you on that, there are many wild Yew groves on the chalk downs in Surrey, good examples being Newlands Corner and the Druid's grove in Norbury Park.

This one is the most ancient looking specimen I have seen though I haven't explored Newlands Corner thoroughly and I haven't been to the Druid's grove yet, so there may well be better ones.

Yes, this one has been cut back in the past, hence the very small crown and it may well be shaded out by the fast growing ash saplings surrounding it.

So yes, most likely to be a wild tree. Conifers , am , geändert am , hat gesagt:. Ash won't shade out yew, it only casts fairly light shade even at the best of times - and with ash dieback, I doubt they'll be there for long anyway, sadly.

Being located in the edge of the fenced area is the perfect indicativethat it could be perfectly planted. Where I'm from yews were planted in the edges of pastures, near the fences to graze the cattle during the winter, that would also explain the small crown of the tree.

But in this case is a bit off the pasture, and it could perfectly be wild, and for sure very acient, probably older than a years. If the yew can withstand the deadly shade of the beeches, can perfectly resist some nice ashes.

Keep in mind that in their natural forested habitat yew trees take their place in the understory, an usually shady place. Yes, those are good points.

I agree with you on that, roburpetraea. I never knew whether yew naturally grew in dark forests.

If that's the case, then it would make sense that this Yew is in little danger of dying from being shaded-out.

However, I never quite really understood that if a shade-tolerant tree like a yew, or a Beech grew up in a pasture, or a full-sun environment, would the tree die out if a forest grew around it and shaded it out?

I am wondering this because if a tree shade-tolerant has lived its whole life in a sunny location, would the tree have a high chance of dying because it is all of a sudden shaded out, and has little light available?

I don't think they have any problem, as long as they naturally tolerate the shade of those trees. Yew growing under a forest dominated by Quercus petraea and Fagus sylvatica over a sandy and acid soil.

If the plant that grew in the sun is not tolerant, then this happens: The logs that are fallen on the ground are oak trees that have died after the sudden colonization of Fagus sylvatica, which are the young trees that are growing everywhere.

Only the tallest oaks are still standing, that will also succumb when the beeches reach their height. Another drastic example of how an entire ecosystem is quickly replaced by a completely different one due to different shade tolerance between species.

I will put a sequence of images that represents this change, the captions tell in detail what each one illustrates but they are in Spanish, I will try to explain them in a very summarized way: A forest dominated by Mediterranean shrub vegetation of Arbutus unedo with the presence of evergreen oaks.

However, we clearly see how deciduous species of the Atlantic climate begin to emerge and already exceed the Mediterranean forest in height, among them oaks and whitebeams.

The reason is that under the strong shade produced by the evergreen forest, the deciduous species are paradoxically more tolerant than the shade-causing ones, and are being replaced.

Here we see a more advanced stage in the evolution of the forest, where oaks and beech have completely cornered the Mediterranean forest of Arbutus unedo, their days are numbered.

We advance a little more in time and we already see a well-formed oak grove, there are barely a few A. Evergreens oaks can grow somewhat larger than A.

However, they have no future either. In these new conditions Ilex aquifolium is much more competent. Here we can see a fantastic oak stand, where there is still a decaying lower layer of A.

The few that remain stretch out to try to climb into the light, like the one who drowns and tries to keep his mouth out of the water.

But they will eventually reach their inevitable fate. This extreme change in vegetation can't be seen in other western european countries, things like these make Spain the most biodiverse country in Western Europe.

That's a good point with your first comment, roburpetraea - there was a large beech just the other side of the fence, so if the tree can withstand the deep shade that the beech produces in summer, then it can easily withstand some small Ashes.

BeeEnvironment , am , geändert am , hat gesagt:. Wow, thanks for sharing this, and translating the images. That's a very fascinating sequence to see progression and succession.

I never knew Spain is the most biodiverse country in western europe, but now it makes sense to me that it is.

Your sequence reminded me of a project I learned about in a forest-ecology course. The project was the Little Arnot Photograph Series, and "In , scientists of the United States Forest Service Allegheny Experiment Station formed a partnership with managers to collect data in stands scheduled to be harvested as part of the first timber sale on the 4-year-old Allegheny National Forest.

Every 10 years foresters would return to the same spot to photograph the area that was once clear-cut. I find such resourced very valuable in understanding forest growth and succession over many years.

Here is a photograph from that shows the old-growth virgin hardwood forest that was never cut, and as you can see, the forest was very dense, with American Beech, Sugar Maple, and Black Cherry most dominant.

There were 8. By , "The stand had begun to differentiate into crown classes, and the differences in growth rates between the species begin to be apparent.

The large trees in the left foreground are year-old black cherry, while a year old sugar maple sprout clump in the center background are much smaller.

Black cherry continued to dominate, representing Self-thinning had reduced the number of trees per acre to Black cherry, sugar maple, and basswood, respectively, dominated the stand's basal area, with black cherry representing Pin cherry was completely absent from the stand by this tally, fifty years after disturbance.

There were trees per acre, of which only were black cherry. The medial diameter of merchantable cherry trees was Black cherry accounted for Sugar maple added trees per acre, and Eight basswood trees per acre contributing 9.

Medial diameters for merchantable cherry and sugar maple were The net sawtimber volume increased in the last ten years to board feet per acre. What also surprises me is that some old-growth forests in PA, such as Tionesta at acres, were saved from cutting, while the forest service cut many old-growth tracts in the Allegheny national forest.

It makes me wonder how much old-growth could have been saved. Furthermore, it makes me consider how much old-growth might still need to be located in small valleys and in hard-to-reach places.

That's right, but nothing comparable to the biodiversity you have in the US. I also made a synthesis of the captions, not a literal translation, there is additional information in the captions that I have not commented, such as that with the presence of Atlantic species, the herbaceous substrate of the forest floor is also altered, such as the arrival of blueberries, Vaccinium myrtillus, lacking under the Mediterranean forest, as well as the new presence of Ilex aquifolium, which eventually coexists with the decaying stratum of Arbutus unedo in the understory.

By the way, the previous images are from the excellent free book of the Leonese forestry engineer mr. Case study in the Mena Valley north of Burgos ", highly recommended for anyone interested in forest dynamics, and well abundant in images, since as who says a picture is worth a thousand words.

Quercus robur and Quercus petraea forest of the Hyperico pulchri-Querco roboris S. The original forests after degradation for centuries produced by the hand of man had disappeared and were replaced by Mediterranean vegetation, more tolerant to human action and which is naturally relegated to rocky areas with very little or no soil, very exposed.

Curiously, the beech trees that begin to thrive under the oaks in the darkest areas will be the ones that in the future will replace the oaks, continuing the cycle.

Amazing that photographic evolution of the forest, near years of documentation, I've never seen something like that. European beech is an incredible species, in places dominating from the see shore to the alpine tree limit in the east and apparently also in parts of the Mediterranean area!

I am thankful to live in such a state that has lots of data on virgin forests, and protects both young and ancient groves from being logged or disturbed by the hand of man.

Yes, the European Beech is a fascinating species! I know here in the Eastern U. S, American Beech Fagus Grandifolia does not grow as fast as its European cousin.

However, it plays nearly the same role as you have described, roburpetraea. In the late stages of forest succession here in south-east PA, Beech grows heavily in rich soils and in the dark canopy of a maturing forest, and takes over shade-intolerant trees such as Red Maple, and Tulip Trees liriodendron tulipifera only in certain conditions, however.

This is an image of nearby Marshall Mill House Preserve, where you can see a American Beech with the smooth bark in center.

I have been meaning to head here and document some of the trees on the upper slopes, which may be a small old-growth patch. KoutaR thanks!

But keep in mind that mediterraean vegetation doesn't have to grow only in mediterranean areas, can also grow on atlantic areas as atlantic vegetation can also grow on mediterranean areas.

The example that I used, Mena Valley is a Cantabrian valley, an atlantic place that's inside the Eurosiberian region.

But as you can see mediterranean vegetation has found its place. BeeEnvironment Unfortunately Fagus sylvatica in certain circumstances acts as an invasive and exclusive species, and when it dominates a forest its too intense shade becomes unbearable for many species, to the detriment of biodiversity, unlike for example an oak forest, where much more light reaches the floor.

The flat branches parallel to the surface of the beech are designed to take advantage of every last drop of sun, unlike those of the oak, which are more irregular and spaced apart.

This translates into a much smaller amount, even non-existent understory, which is essential for the presence of fauna. Where is it more viable for a deer to live, in a dense and impenetrable forest where they are protected or in a completely clean forest at ground level where a wolf can see the poor deer for hundreds of meters, in addition the understory is also an essential food source for wildlife.

In the Cantabrian mountain range, the colonization of the beech is becoming a worrying issue for this reason, since many threatened species that depend on a forest with an abundant understory are seeing their habitat reduced by the unstoppable expansion of the beech.

The forest is frecuently grazed by cattle, even making worst the restrictive effect of the beech shade. It is true that on many types of soil and climate, beech makes the forets less diverse.

In extreme cases there are beech groves that have only a single vascular plant species - beech! I have always thought, it is a native species and beech forest communities have existed thousands of years, so let them grow.

However, I understand that in some circumstances it may be regarded as invasive. The extreme concurrence power of beech is not a result of its shade-tolerance and shade-casting only.

Also its roots are very efficient. And it produces huge amounts of acid leaf litter that decomposes slowly, which suffocates undergrowth as well.

That is interesting to know. Do you know any native species that have enough shade-tolerance so they could live in the understory? If yes, then maybe an option is to stop cattle grazing, cut down a few large beeches to create canopy openings, and then plant species other than beech that are shade-tolerant?

Here in Pennsylvania, Beech can become a problem without other species present, however American Beech grow so slowly that "The U.

Forest Service reports that seedlings planted in northern Pennsylvania took 10 years to get 2 feet high.

Trees grown in the Great Lakes region required 20 years to grow 14 feet high, 40 years to grow 28 feet high and 80 years to reach 48 feet" So, due to their generally slow growth rate, when the canopy opens for various reasons a tree dies, or falls , other tree species such as the Tulip Tree, Oaks, Walnuts, Hickorys, and Black Cherries that were growing very slowly in the previously dark understory , are able to speed up their growth from the new sunlight to fill the open canopy spot before Beech takes over.

Another way that is also common is that Tulip trees and oaks are able to grow very slowly in the shade until they surpass Beech. Because of these reasons, and others, beech has not really become a problem, and forests with Beech in PA are generally very diverse.

KoutaR, yes, I know some of that forests :. It's a controversial species in Spain, because of that problems that I mentioned before, and the debate is if we should leave the beech follow the natural course or intervine to preserve the more biodiverse forests and that essential habitats for endangered species of fauna.

The reality is that F. Beech and fire aren't good friends, in fact a well burnt beech forest may take more than years to recover, unlike oak that is much more resilient to fire, and fire was one of the main instruments to clear forests.

Really we did those forests more diverse with our actions while obliterating others, not everything is of pink colour.

As you said also the root system is to blame, adding that is also very superficial and compact, that also make things harder for other species.

Conifers , am , hat gesagt:. Even in southern Britain where it was introduced by early man about 2, years after the Channel formed , to the north of its native range, Beech is dying out due to drought and heat, and is really only thriving as an exotic in northern Britain where summers are cooler and wetter.

This is in contrast to oaks, which so far at least have been able to cope with the warming climate as they are more drought tolerant. The differences between European and American beech forests is both genetical two different species as well as climatical.

Eastern NA has more continental climate than Europe. Beech likes fairly oceanic climate and today's European climate is perfectly fitted for beech.

Deer is a problem in Central Europe, too. Particularly all the seedlings of Abies alba and Taxus are browsed. Acers are damaged, too.

Beech much less. In eastern Europe there are still wolves and deer populations are less dense. The boundary of the deer overpopulation and "balance" is approximately at eastern Poland, eastern Slovakia, western Romania and between Slovenia and Croatia.

The line is not exactly the same as the wolf distribution: for example, wolf lives in most of Slovakia but only in the easternmost part of the country healty fir regeneration can be observed.

BeeEnvironment I mean F. In this image there is a mixed forest of Quercus petraea and Fagus sylvatica where the beech is behaving like a normal companion species; seen from the corner between a logging track and the road, the tree that makes the corner edge is a beech, easily distinguishable by its crown ending in pointed branches, while the oak branches end more blunt and rounded.

The undergrowth of this forest at this place is composed of Ilex aquifolium, heather, grasses, ferns and delicious blueberries Vaccinium myrtillus.

In Europe beeches are probably the tallest deciduous excluding conifers trees, but nothing beats the presence of a great oak, for me are the most magestic trees in Europe.

Fauna has a great impact on the forest dynamics, here is an example from Germany extracted also from the book I mentioned before: Look the effect in regeneration that a simple fence has on the forest.

In the other hand where I'm from we have bears an wolves, a lot of wolves despite the constant and fierce persecution of these, which although they are completely harmless to humans, used to decimate the herds, which meant ruin for their owner.

My great-grandfather with only 6 years old was already going alone with the sheep to the mountain, and one day a pack of wolves cornered the flock and killed all the sheep, and he, very scared, stood in the middle of the flock hugging a newborn sheep, the wolf came and with his mouth snatched the sheep from his arms, incredible.

My father has also met the wolf several times, once he was running through the mountains at night and a she-wolf began to run by his side until he entered the town again, probably because my father had unknowingly entered his territory, and the she-wolf that had possibly had cubs escorted my father out of it.

KoutaR , am , geändert am , hat gesagt:. Manu, sorry but the story of your great grandfather is so unbelievable than I cannot believe it.

Old men sometimes tell fairy tales. Your great grandfather hated wolves and wanted to strengthen his message with this story, I guess.

Happy new year anyway! Whew, yes, that is just an fascinating story, as Kouta put it, that I can barely believe it.

He must have been very, very, very scared. Many people were also very tough and still are today, though not as many back then.

I knew my grandfather used to tell quite some tales to me about how monkeys used to abduct children off the streets in small Azerbaijan towns a long time ago.

I dont know whether it was true, but it was funny to listen to him about it though :- I think he meant to try to scare me a bit, hahah. Grandfathers can tell the bests of stories : Those are fascinating stories, nonetheless.

Yes, roburpetraea, the regeneration in that fenced plot is remarkable compared to the non-fenced section. In Northern PA, something like that ought to be done so the old-growth stands do not succumb to deer-overbrowsing.

Organic, wild blueberries are the best to eat in the understory! In PA, clearcut areas feature blueberries, but not in the forests.

However, Paw Paws and apples make up for them : Happy New Year everyone! May bring good luck to all! Conifers good question and good nuance, re-coloizing but also colonizing new territory like in Portugal.

The answer is probably as simple as that in the northwest quadrant of the Iberian Peninsula we are not feeling those pernicious effects of climate change, I insist on probably.

The forests have been in full expansion since the beginning of the rural exodus in the s, and the colonizing trend does not seem to be slowing down.

The substitution of Mediterranean forest for Atlantic forest is happening simultaneously in places separated by hundreds of kilometers, the expansion of the beech is a fait accompli, even in recent years it has jumped to Portugal, where it is a completely exotic species, and it is seriously endangering the last remaining well-preserved pedunculated oak forests in the country.

Some examples of the expansion of the beech tree in Spain: Example of a bi-stratified repopulation pine forest with subfloor composed of early regeneration of Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Sorbus aucuparia, Fraxinus excelsior and Betula pubescens, Las Machorras, Burgos.

Here another example of the radical transformation of a deforested and eroded slope photographed in and another photo taken in of the same place, the diference is that now we have a lush forest covering it.

Very interesting and puzzling thing that beech is not native in Portugal but now spreading rapidly. Could it be that the reason, why it is not native, is that between the Ice Age refugium the Pyrenees?

Kouta hahaha well, he died a long time ago so we'll never if it was really true, but I don't find anything unbelievable about it, just a kid that went with the cattle like everyone did in his generation, and they were attacked by wolves, that were and still are very agressive in Spain against cattle.

The modus operandi of wolves here is killing every animal in the flock, even the shepherd dogs that sometimes can't win the battle against them.

But as I said don't touch humans, they fear us, there are not known attack of wolves against humans known in Spain, so they only leave alive the shepherd.

KoutaR, buff The historical expansion and range of beech in Spain is a controversial matter. The beech is invading this last forest of Q.

The thing is that it looked like it stopped at some point in its travel to the west, we don't know why. There is no consense on the chronology of beech colonization, so now it looks like beech arrived to Spain much before it was believed.

There is also known hybrids of Fagus sylvatica with the extinct Fagus pliocenica in the litoral valleys in Gerona, Catalonia, that also sought refuge in Spain during the glaciation but did not overcome it.

I'll try to investigate some more about beech, because I remember reading some modern advances on puzzling the distribution on beech today but I don't remember the details.

This is the most occidental natural beech forest of Europe that grow in Serra do Courel, Spain. In Portugal beech was introduced years ago in Peneda-Geres Natural Park one of the two mature forests of Q.

In 50 years some part of the forest has become a monospecific beech forest, fully displacing Q. Nature works in mysterious ways. We might not know for a while why beech stopped at the western limit.

To me it seems that in areas that beech is overabundant, and killing off native oaks and other species, wouldn't it make sense for some of the Beech trees to be harvested for lumber?

I don't know any tree species here in South-east Pennsylvania that is somewhat native and crowding out other native tree species. Norway Maple is a real pest to have around though, as it is as detrimental to native forests as European Beech is in some instances.

Its fast growth rate even in dark forests makes it able to become a major part of the canopy within 60 years in some places.

A photo of norway maples taking over native forests: Another photo, showing Norway maple growing up into the canopy as a large thicket:.

In some particularly delicate and accessible places this is what is being carried out, but on a large scale it is an unviable measure. At the end of the day it is fighting against the natural course.

Old and isolated oaks like this are a frequent sighting every time less in the pure beech forests of this area, witnesses of a mixed forest that has become monospecific of beech.

The reason for the felling has been ecological, since the dominance of the beech harms biodiversity and this specific place is a habitat of interest for the Cantabrian brown bear.

The orange L is the initial of the neighbor to whom the tree has been assigned since it was in his "suerte", which is a parcel assigned by the council to each neighbor of the municipal forest to collect firewood.

Another beech felling action for ecological reasons was in the Tejeda de Tosande, a unique wood of very old yew trees that were being threatened by the pure beech forest that surrounds them: Photo of the yew forest, unfortunately another threat that these yew trees suffer worse in my opinion than that of the beech trees, is the large amount of tourism they receive and that is compacting the land at the foot of the yews.

A trend that is becoming very fashionable in recent years is rural tourism, where with great mistake this natural marvels are being promoted not as a treasure to be preserved but as if they were an amusement park, often causing irreparable damage to them and seriously threatening them.

European maples are fast grow very invasive species, that's their usual role here. In old mature forest very rarely are you going to find a great and big maple, is more like a colonizing species, a fallen tree that creates a clear in the forest can be the place where this maples grow, for example.

Conifers It could also be that, as you have said, the beech tree has been relatively recently introduced in the British Isles, years ago, which could not be enough for them to have been completely assimilated in native ecosystems, that the interspecific relationships, like micro-rids of the soil for example, or among other vascular plants, have not developed with sufficient intensity which makes beech vulnerable when conditions become more severe than the species that are already perfectly integrated and interrelated in the ecosystem.

Because beech can tolerate drought relatively well, in many places where it's an abundant species in Spain, July and August are the driest months by far.

They will, at some point, naturally spread through the forests. There is really not much we could do to stop the natural spread. After all, it is nature, and mankind does not really have an opinion in matters such as this.

Also, about the foot traffic with the yews, I definitely agree. While I think it is good for people to see nature, many of these visitors I have met here in the U.

S don't pay much respect to these beautiful places. One example is the American Beech forests, in which visitors have in popular areas, and even rural areas ruined the natural beauty of beech with knife carvings: I think a lot of people need to respect nature more when they visit such areas, and, about heavy foot traffic, trails should be built where it would limit damage to nature as much as possible.

For instance, in Ricketts Glen State Park, the state foresters and ecologists have done a pretty spot on job with constructing trails that would limit damage to water-quality and plant-life, though allow visitors to see the grand 22 waterfalls: Above you can see a stone staircase leading up the falls-trail.

I also agree with you on the Norway Maples, in forests that have had canopy openings, the seedlings can occasionally grow up in place of native trees, and when they grow older and taller, their roots start to "strangle" those of native species, which causes further damage.

In meadows or farmlands converting to forest through succession, Norway Maples play a negative role in many instances, as they take advantage of all the sun, and grow very tall, only to leave native species in the darkness to die.

However, American Beech and Sugar Maple come to the rescue and, after many years of growing the the dark canopy, are able to take over the Norway Maples, and the sudden lack of sunlight often kills them, and this begins the process in which the land can convert back to native forest.

Aidan , am , geändert am , hat gesagt:. I thought it was native to southern UK, though you may well be correct.

Reading this discussion is very interesting and I am learning quite a bit. Aidan that's what Conifers said I really don't know the details about its native character in the British Isles.

Happy to heara that you are enjoying this discussion, I think everyone is learning new and interesting thing, I mean that's the main goal of having them.

Yes, I'm happy to hear Aiden, that you are finding this discussion interesting and you are learning new things. As roburpetraea said, thats the point of having these discussions :- I am happy to know such a website that "promotes" the sharing of knowledge on forests and trees, and I am learning a great deal.

Aidan, roburpetraea - Beech pollen does not appear in the fossil record in Britain until BP BC. Beech seeds aren't able to do that, so it has to be concluded that Beech was introduced to Britain deliberately by man, as a nut crop species.

Reference: Harris, E. Goodbye to Beech? Farewell to Fagus? Quarterly Journal of Forestry 96 2 : 97 Are beech nuts still eaten in England?

In Spain they are called "hayucos", and they are still consumed as a natural dried fruit in rural areas where beech is abundant, I have not tried them yet, but I do have friends who say they are delicious.

I never knew that people could eat them. In America, I don't know whether American Beech nuts are edible, though they probably are.

Do you mean the nuts could be eaten when lightly dried in the sun, for instance? If American Beech nuts are edible, then every few years I would have availability to thousands of Beech nuts, accounting for the plentiful beech forests in my area:.

Yes, you can, and a good beech fruit taste like a mixture of walnut and hazelnut. They can be removed from the wrapper that is attached to the branch, they usually bring about 2, or directly from the ground, if they have recently fallen.

Then these have to be peeled, which can be a bit complicated, and eaten directly. As with all fruits, the taste can vary greatly from one tree to another, some may taste delicious and others very bitter, it is a matter of looking for the right tree.

If they taste very bitter it means that they contain a lot of tannins, and they can hurt our stomach, so it will be better to look for another neighboring tree or else in another place.

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WIEN III. ZÜRICH VIIL , PRAG Wien, Dezenber 19o6. Herrn 3 r. Sehr GQohrter Herr :Or. Wir danken verbindlichst für die freundliche Uebersendung Ihres Manuskriptes, doch war es leider unmöglich, für dasselbe bei uns Raum zu schafien.

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Postsparkasse 1. Besirksgoricht Brück a. Mur Abt. JüU '. Sie npel ablordern vom betr. U S 43 g und 1 s 5o g Die Kosten der betreiben- bestimmt.

Bezirksgericht BRÜCK a. In Exekutionssachen beträgt die Rekursfrist 8 Tage. Max Hieser Wien! Vi Ol. Im fronuaen oiena. Marapenlicht der. Zenker Italiens in Urnbrien -and in..

Wien, den X Sehr geehrter Herr Doktor! Ich danke Ihnen "bestens für die freundliche üelDermittlung der Skizze, die ich mit Interesse gelesen habe.

Leider war es aas rein redaktionellen Gründen doch nicht möglich, dieselbe unterzubringen, weshalb wir uns erlauben, das Manuskript anbei wieder zu Ihrer Verfligang zu stellen.

Sonntagsblatt Staats-Zeitung und Herold Sunday 10 Januar Please refer to Herrn Dr. Sehr geehrter Herr Dr. Max Rieser, E9 West 71s Street , New York.

Hochach tungsvoll REDAKTION DER NEUEN ZÜRCHER ZEITUNG , IX. Max Rieser, 29 West Street , New York. Rleser : Please refer to Auf Ihren Brief vom Hochaph ttjngsvol 1 HEINRICH HEIDE Telephone BEekman New Yorker Suats-Zeitung und Herold Daily P.

Box City Hall Annex NORTH WILLIAM STREET NEW YORK. Sonntagsblatt Staata-Zeitung und Herold Sunday Oktober Please refer io Herrn Dr. Fieser : Auf Ihren Brief vom S.

NEW YORK CITY RECTOR Dr. Max Fieser 61 E 86 N Y C Wuerden Sie sich daran macben? Bitte, seien Sie nicht ungeduldig, weni wir nicht sofort antworten.

Mit besten Gruesseu. Box City Hall Annex Sonntagsblatt Staats-Zeitung und Herold Sunday Phase refer to NEW YORK CITY RECTOR Max Rieser 61 East 86 St.

New York, N. Leider sind wir nicht in der Lage, irgend welche Autorenhonorare zu bezahlen. Wir haben da raals auch zu Ihnen ueber die schwierige Lage der Zeitung, die wie jede antifaschistische Zeitung schwer zu kaempfen und zk sorgen hat, um ueber- haupt immer wieder erscheinen zu koennan, hinge- wiesen und gesagt, dass wir Beitraege nicht ho- norieren koennen.

Fuer Ihre freundliche Mitarbeit danken wir Ihnen und verbleiben mit bestem Gruss DEUTSCHES VOLKS ECHO Please make checks and money ozdexs payable to Pastorious Publishing Co.

Box City Hall Annex Sonntagsblatt Staats-Zeitung und Herold Sunday Phase refer io Herrn Dr. March 9, New York City. Sehr geehrter Herr Doktor: Ihr M8 Saint Brief erreichte mich gestern.

Zeitung in deutscher Sprache? Oder stehen Sie vielleicht aen Artikeln als deren Verfasser nahe? Ich arbeite vm ''H. Box Church Street Annex Sonntagsblatt Staats-Zeitung und Herold Sunday Please rejer to 7.

Aiigust Herrn Dr. Unb bod rant ob nll biejeiu V. Unb bod ift CO nur balb fo. Seitaenoffen, auf ber. Tav meufd lid e Clement in ibm rante fid er nieit über oeii Xurd fd nitt binauo.

Tav luuu Crfan ht:'' Mriciicv anfacmiililtc "JJJecr bcc' nationalen. Sie "i iad n3elt, bie Ok'Ienenbeit bat, eiimial bie iianae '?

Crv 3eid net fid aber nod in einer anbcrcn 2iVije anv, bie ev in eine befonbcrc. Ta- inipir ninfUe leben, inie nid t. Xie uiri tfatbolifd e tMt fab ia nid t mie mir.

Weiftev mirfeube. Qird C, fonbern eben blon ben X! A EF Illuftrierte Donatsjcbrift für bie cbriftlicbe Samilie. Jür unsi.

Webot ber Stunbe" ift. Sd rift pfammennefetit ift. Um nur eine Stelle beranC'. Abhandlnngen kitn. XJnd eigentlich nollte beides ans.

Als Beleg des wahl- losen nnd in diesem? Basel, Wie man mir sagte, lässt sich dieser aber vom Autor gut und im Voraus bezahlen.

Nun Ihr M. Diese Langzeilen sind, nach meiner Auffassiing, keine Verse. Sie ermangeln zu sehr des rhythmischen Anreizes, der den Leser spornt, mit sich nimmt, nicht loslässt, der des Gedichtes Puls und Leben wäre.

Sie verfügen über ein? Zeigen Sie die trübe schwelende Fackel oder zeigen Sie den Leib, irgendwie plastisch, der diese Wirkung hat.

So etwas muss einmal bestürzend oder zwingend im Vers drinstehn. Alles müsste auf ein Drittel seiner Länge zusammengefasst werden, pizis, kurz , gedrängt und rhythmisch erfüllt sein.

Es ist wahr. Aber die Wahrheit muss gestaltet sein, wenn sie irgend aufmerksam machen will. Um die Gestaltung werden Sie schrittweise kämpfen müssen - und am Ende wird Ihr Manuskript klein geworden sein.

Verzeihen Sie, dass ich so unumwunden zu Ihnen rede. Ich sah ein gutes Teil von dem, was seit dem Kriegsende und später hervorgebracht worden ist.

Ich sah, was davon eine gewisse Wirkung hatte und was nur aus dem Ueberdrang des Herzens, aber ohne Formkraft gesagt war. Max Rieeer Kew York Sehr geehrter Herr Doktor Rieser, Mit diesen Zeilen kon-jnt Dun Ihr M, 3.

Ich möchte nur nicht, cess dieser Brief Sie entmutigt hätte. Aller- dings besitzie ich sollst solche Verbindungen nicht , Sie zu erlangen wären Hittelspersonen nötig.

HAMBURG 1, den ''. Hieserl Sehr gern haben vvir Ihren. Leider vermissen wir jedoch. Beachten Sie d. DEUTSCHE RUNDSCHAU Herausgegeben von Rudolf Pechel Herrn Dr.

Riecer Herr Dr. Leider kann ich Sienicht um einel Besprechung dei. Rudolf Pechel 1 Anlage Herrn Dr. Max Ries er W Str. Rieser, Herr Dr.

Um Sie für die Wartezeit zu entschädigen, haben wir eine Kurzfassung Ihres Referates auf Seite 3 der Beilage gebracht.

Thi3 boogk abuut the Classification of the arts Ib -oreoeded by a prefaoe of kiss. She deviates from Ingarden in re.

Her Position toeward.. Züreienseilmig Züridi. Februar Herrn Dr. Max Rieser W, Ptr. New York 27, N. Rieser, Sie haben mir am Januar geschrieben, und ich antworte Ihnen darauf wie folgt: 1.

Ihr Artikel über die amerikanische Zivilisation ist derart undeutlich geschrieben, dass ich ihn unseren Setzern leider heute nicht vorlegen könnte. Wir haben sehr ungern Durch- schlage und rechnen eigentlich im allgemeinen damit, dass man uns nur Originalartikel vorlegt, folglich auch nur original Schreibmaschinenschrift.

Ich möchte Sie also höflich bitten, in Zukunft in dieser Beziehung Rücksicht zu nehmen auf For- derungen, die nicht nur den Redaktor, sondern mindestens so sehr den Setzer betreffen.

Philosophie im engeren Sinn ist nicht mein Ressort, sondern das meines Kollegen Dr. Werner Weber.

Schneider unterbreitet. Wir können also leider keine Aufträge in dieser Richtung erteilen. Sollte das nicht der Fall sein, erwarten wir, dass der Autor es auf dem Manuskript selbst oben hinschreibt, und nicht nur auf einem Begleitbrief der verloren gehen kann anmerkt.

Ich danke Ihnen sehr geehrter Herr Doktor, für Ihre Bemühungen und für Ihr Interesse und grüsse Sie als Ihr sehr ergebener A.

März e Dr. Ihr Aufsatz über Christoph Columbap let am Die beiden Auf und "Arbeitszeit liegen laeren. Si tene zuwenig aufg eicht gehabt, pie uns geeignet sind gekoamen.

Ich habe die Ab- gelegentlioh umzuarbeiten, damit sie für bin aber einfach bis jetzt nicht dazu- mir nicht ausgehen sollte, werde ich sie angegebene Wiener Adresse retourniercn.

Ich scSrieb iJnen hie. August nach Vien. Mit "anderen Themien" dürfte es eUvas schwierig sein, so lange ich diese Themen nicht; weiss,.

Die umseitige Erklärung ist abgetrennt zurückzusenden. Ein Beleg folgt un- verzüglich nach Erscheinen.

Die dpk dankt verbindlich für diese Mitarbeit und bittet um weitere Förderung ihres Wirkens. Beachten Sie bitte unsere umstehenden Hinweise Manuskriptsendungen sind stets an die Schriftleitung der Deutschen Presse-Korrespondenz zu riditen.

Mitarbeiter-Hinweise der dpk Vom Inhalt Als einer der führenden deutschen Pressedienste verbreiten wir grundsätzlich nur solche Manuskripte, die sich für die Tagespresse eignen.

Auch Beiträge zu kulturellen Gegenwarts- fragen aus der Feder namhafter Gelehrter, Künstler und Techniker, Interviews mit bekannten Persönlichkeiten, Gedenkartikel möglichst 6 bis 8 Wochen vor dem Termin sowie Reportagen aus dem Bereich von Lehr-, Werk- und Kunststätten werden verlangt.

Unerwünscht sind Nachrichten und Meldungen, Artikel, die geschäft- lichen Werbezwecken dienen, Besprechungen Rezensionen , Rätsel, Rezepte, Füller und Miszellen.

Die Höchst- länge der von uns veröffentlichten Beiträge soll im allgemeinen 90 Druckzeilen zu je 60 Maschinenschrift-Anschlägen nicht übersteigen.

Manuskript-Format: DIN A 4, links freier Rand und nicht engzeilig. Es kommen nur einseitig beschriebene Arbeiten in Betracht.

Mitarbeit Jeder Mitarbeiter wird gebeten, monatlich möglichst nicht mehr als zwei bis drei Beiträge einzusenden.

Nicht die Menge, sondern die Güte entscheidet. Die Mitarbeit kann ohne besondere Aufforderung jederzeit beginnen und fortgesetzt werden. Der Name des Verfassers wird genannt.

Erworbene Arbeiten werden nach ihrer Veröffentlichung vergütet. Ein Belegstück wird dem Verfasser unaufgefordert nach Veröffentlichung gesandt.

Manuskript Die von uns erworbenen Beiträge können vom Verfasser frühestens zwei Monate nach Veröffentlichung in der dpk auch anderweitig ver- wendet werden, jedoch nicht in anderen Pressediensten.

Es wird gebeten, jedes Manuskript mit der Verfasser- Anschrift zu versehen. Ausserdem hatte ich vor nicht allzu langer Zeit etwas thematisch Aehnliches gebracht.

Mit freundlichen Grüssen B. Max Rieser West Street New York Rleser, Ich danke Ihnen vielmals für Ihren Brief. Einer unserer Mitarbeiter, Dr. Max Schoch, wird demnächst Paul Tillich besuchen; er wird über diesen Besuch schreiben.

Dann hoffen wir, diesen Bericht, zusammen mit Ihrem Aufsatz, zu einer Tillich-Seite verbinden zu können.

Sie haben recht, vorläufig nichts mehr zu schicken; wir möchten doch erst einmal den Tillich abbringen, bevor wir weitergehen.

Max Ries er West Street Nevj York 27, n,Y, Sehr geehrter Herr Dr. Hieser, Ich danke Ihnen für Ihren Brief. Das Thema "Aosthetik" interessiert mich sehr.

Aber viel- leicht ist es doch besser, Sie schauen sich den Kongress erst einmal an - manchmal wird mehr versprochen als ge- halten.

Es wäre schön, wenn wir uns dann über einen Ar- tikel einigen könnten. VJeder Ihr "Tillich" noch Ihre Geschichte der amerikanischen Philosophie ist vergessen, aber beide Aufsätze machen mir enorme Mühe, sowohl durch die Form wie durch den Inhalt.

Ich habe Ihnen das mit Bezug auf den Aufsatz über die Geschichte der amerika- nischen Philosophie schon bei Ihrem Besuch gesagt. Ich muss sehen, wie ich da zu einem Ende komme.

Leicht ist es nicht. Jedenfallsjhabe ich Ihnen ja damals gesagt, dass Sie sich nicht blockiert fühlen sollen. Sie können jederzeit, über die Manuskriplje , wenn sich andere Ge- legenheiten bieten, verfügen.

Also hören wir wohl voneinan- der in Sachen "Aesthetik. Y Sehr geehrter Herr Doktor, Für Ihre Zeilen vom März mit dem Artikel "amerikanisiert sich Europa?

An einem Bericht über den Internationalen Kongress für Aesthetik sind wir dieses Jahr nicht sehr interessiert. Fischer Verlag Frankfurt am main.

Max Rieser West Street NEW YORK 27 N. USA Frankflirt Aain, den Mit ausgezeichneter Hochachtung S.

Dazu komnien die liegengebliebenen und inzwischen an- gefallenen Geschäfte, die erleaigt werden müssen. Beides zusammen verhindert die Fahrt zum Treffen der 27er.


ADRES TELEGR. Rieser: We refer to your kind letter of June Americain Express, Wien I, Kaerntner Ring, Österreich Sehr geehrter Herr Doktor!

Die besonderen Ansichten von Georg Lukacs haben wir ebenfalls im Nachtprogramm behandelt. April es Herrn Dr. Max Rieser West Street New York 27, N.

Rieser, Leider können wir Ihre Sesprechimg der "Pjrramidenkletterer" nicht bringen, da wir in dieser iNluniner ein ganzes Kapitel aus dem Buch in einer Beilage für unsere Leser abdrucken.

Berlin, den 8. Mai Sehr verehrter Herr Dr. Riesner, Herr Dr. Pross , der bei Empfang Ihres Briefes krank war, leitete mir als verantwortlichem Redakteur der NEUEN RUNDSCHAU Ihr Schreiben zur Beantwortung zu.

Aesthetik machen kann, auf den Sie hinweisen. Ich vermute: Roman Ingarden u. Street New York Berlin, den 6.

Wir bestätigen dankend den Eingang des Aufsatzes Contemporary Aesthetics in Poland" und bitten Sie freiindlichst um etwas Geduld, da Herr Dr.

Härtung zur Zeit verreist ist. Mit freundlichen Grüssen NEUE RUNDSCHAU i. Der Beitrag über den Internationalen Konfsress für Philo- sophie in Mexico ist leider für die r'rankfurter Hefte nicht geeignet.

Ich beeile mich dahpr, Ihnen das Manuskript wieder zurückzu- senden. Auslieferung : 78 Freiburg i. Internationalen Kongress für Philo- sophie in Mexico ist leider für die i?

Wir halten nichts von "Übersichtsartikeln", sonriern hätten uns allenfalls mit Sonderaspekten zu befassen.

Mit freundlichen Empfehlunc:eri Hubert Piabijcht Neue Veriagsgetellichaft der Frankfurter Hefte m.

Max Rieser West Streöb New York Ich habe es mit grossem Interesse durchgelesen, muss nuÄ aber nach reiflicher Ueberlegung Ihnen doch mitteilen, dass ich auf eine Publikation in unserem Blatt verzichten möchte.

April iil i-P Senr re ehrt er Herr Dr. Rieser, Ich bedaure es sehr, innen auc "di zur ern son ord ser.

Einiges davon war in dem von L. Kolakowski angeschnitten, den wir in! Rieser, besten Dank für Ihre Sendung vom Leider eignet sich die Arbeit in dieser Form für den MERKUR nicht recht.

Interessant wäre es gewesen, das Problem, ob in der Kunst von Entwicklung die Reae sein kann, zu behandeln. Anscheinend bringt das Buch von Munro aber nur eine Problemgeschichte, mit Aufzählung ver- schiedener Theorien - und das ist doch etwas wenig.

Bitte sparen Sie nicht mit neuen Vorschlagen. Max Ries er :est Street N e w Y o r k,N. Wir erlauben uns Ihnen mitzuteilen, dass wir Ihre Sendung Das Gegenwartshild der amerikanischen Philosophie am Donnerstag, Juli hier ein- traf, befand sich Herr ivallenberg gerade auf dem Weg in die rerien.

Max Rieser z. Schruns Vorarlberg ÖSTERREICH ABTEILUNG S ond er pr ogramiü RUF-NR. Ich bin sehr froh, dass Sie noch hier sind und dass wir auch noch das Geld für Sie an der Kasse zurückbehalten konnten.

Mit freunllichen Bapfehlumren Dr. Hätte d. Bx sub jq. August Sehr verehrter Herr Rieser, haben Sie vielen Dank für Ihren Brief vom Auch wir haben uns über Ihren Besuch im Funkhaus aufrichtig gefreut.

So bitten wir Sie, uns nicht zu zürnen, wenn wir Ihnen anbei Ihre Manuskripte mit bestem Dank wieder zurückreichen. Form, 69 30 Gr SchnixiB, den Organisator ist dev bckairte Fi'of.

Ich vex-mute ,dass Prof. Mit freandliehen Gruessen Dr. Prise in Abwesenheit: Dr. Lauterbach Dr. Max Rieser , West Street N ew York Y, Rieser, Lassen Sie mich noch einmal herzlichen Dank sagen für Ihren Aufsatz über die polnische Philosophie, den wir, wie Sie inzwischen gelesen haben werden, kürzlich abdruckten.

Freilich war das keine Lektüre für den normalen Zeitungsleser, aber in gewissen Abständen ist solch ein Aufsatz sehr gut.

Vielleicht bietet sich wieder einmal eine Gelegenheit dazu. Günter Zehm P. Februar Dr. Aber schaffen Sie denn das und mehr Platz habe ich einfach nicht auf Zeilen Schreibma- schine zu je 60 Anschlägen, und geschrieben mit wirklichem common sense?

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